The international research team led by Dr Turi King from the University of Leicester Department of Genetics has now provided overwhelming evidence that the skeleton discovered under a car park in Leicester indeed represents the remains of King Richard III, thereby closing what is probably the oldest forensic case solved to date.
The team of researchers, including Professor of English Local History, Kevin Schürer, who is also Pro-Vice-Chancellor for Research at the University of Leicester and led the genealogical research for the project, has published the findings online today (Tuesday 2 December) in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications.
The researchers collected DNA and analysed several genetic markers, including the complete mitochondrial genomes, inherited through the maternal line, and Y-chromosomal markers, inherited through the paternal line, from both the skeletal remains and living relatives. The study is also the first to carry out a statistical analysis of all the evidence together, to prove beyond reasonable doubt that Skeleton 1 from the Greyfriars site in Leicester is indeed the remains of King Richard III.
The excavated remains of Richard III, discovered at Greyfriars. Courtesy University of Leicester
Their results: While the Y-chromosomal markers differ, the mitochondrial genome shows a genetic match between the skeleton and the maternal line relatives. The former result is not unsurprising as the chances for a false-paternity event is fairly high after so many generations. They have also shownbeyond reasonable doubt that Skeleton 1 from the Greyfriars site in Leicester is indeed the remains of King Richard III. Genetic markers related to the King's hair and eye colour indicated that he probably had blond hair and blue eyes, appearing most similar to his depiction in one of the earliest portraits of him that survived, the one curated by the Society of Antiquaries in London.
"The combination of evidence confirms the remains as those of Richard III," said Shürer. "Especially important is the triangulation of the maternal line descendants."
Says King of the report: "Our paper covers all the genetic and genealogical analysis involved in the identification of the remains of Skeleton 1 from the Greyfriars site in Leicester and is the first to draw together all the strands of evidence to come to a conclusion about the identity of those remains. Even with our highly conservative analysis, the evidence is overwhelming that these are indeed the remains of King Richard III, thereby closing an over 500 year old missing person's case."
Simon Chaplin, Director of Culture & Society at the Wellcome Trust, added: "It is exciting to have access to genetic data from any known historical individual, let alone a king of England lost for more than 500 years, so we are thrilled to be able to support this fascinating project through our Research Resources grant scheme. Adding this information to a wealth of existing material about Richard III further highlights the ways in which studying human remains can inform our understanding of the past, and we look forward to learning more about Richard for many years to come."
The research team now plans to sequence the complete genome of RIII to learn more about the last English king to die in battle
See the videos detailing the research and findings below.