Giong Lon site is in Rach Gia 3 village, Long Son island commune, Vung Tau city. It is a sanbank in the coastal salt-marsh region and extendes the East-West direction with lengthern 1000m, large: 100m. The geographic coordinate between 10 o 27’73 Northern natitude and 107 o 04’002 Eastern natitude far from N o 51 avenue about 4km in the Northern, far from Ganh Rai bay 10km in the Southern and far from Vung Tau city 7km in the Southeast.
Giong Lon site is in Rach Gia 3 village, Long Son island commune, Vung Tau city. It is a sanbank in the coastal salt-marsh region and extendes the East-West direction with lengthern 1000m, large: 100m. The geographic coordinate between 10o 27’73 Northern natitude and 107o 04’002 Eastern natitude far from No 51 avenue about 4km in the Northern, far from Ganh Rai bay 10km in the Southern and far from Vung Tau city 7km in the Southeast.
I. In troduction
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This site was discovered on August, 2002 and excavated in the first time on May 2003. Through the excavated results, archaeologists concluded this is a burial area, dated circa 2000 years before present and belongto important geographic position for studying history of Ba Ria-Vung Tau even the Southeast region the B.C and A.D centuries.
In order to study more deep the cultural characteristic and content of this site. National Museum of Vietnamese History co-ordinated with Museum of Ba Ria-Vung Tau province excavated the 2nd time June, 2005. This excavation gave us new and important informations.
II. Excavated Result
There were 2 excavated holes and 9 explored holes recovered with total square 300m2 in which nothing was found in the 9 explored holes and it was completely burial vestiges with 26 burial groups which were recovered with 2 major types:
- The burial pot: 3 burial jars (take 11,5% total) are small pots with body diametre 35cm - 50cm and include 2 types.
First type: pots with dropping shoulder, round bottom, its core-wall is black, fine and outface is white with cord-marked pattern.
Second type: cooking pots with curved shoulder, round bottom, its core-wall is brown, soft and outface is yeellow or grey. Allmost of the burial cooking pots were buried each a pair with their rim faced each other (upper ones were often smaller).
A lot of funeraries were found both of inside and outside of the birial cooking pots with smal amout (about 1 - 3 objects were burial in each one) and include types as: cooking pot, fruit-tray, pot.
- The directly underground burial graves: are in the majority with 23 burial groups (take 88,5% total). Each grave is 2m long, 0,5m - 0,8m large without unique direction. For example, there were 20 graves excavated in No 1 hole in which 8 graves directed East-South, 5 graves directed Southeast-Northwest with a abudant funerary: potteries were often buried at top, bottom, 2 sides of body and mask, bead, earring were directly burial on death.
There were 672 objects with abudant types and materials:
- Type: total quantity of original and restored potteries are 84 specimens with types as: cooking pot, jar, pot, fruit-tray… Particularly, 2 cooking pots with high ringfoot which are similared with characteristic shape of bronze thing as: high ringfoot, drooping shoulder.
- Material: Giong Lon potteries were made of 2 diffirent materials:
+ The soft potteries with its core-wall is brown, mixed with sand and out face is yellow or grey. This type is in the majority.
+ The black potteries with its core-wall is fine, mixed with flora wasters or peat and outface is white.
- Pattern: Allmost of these potteries were decorated with incised patterns which like waves and raining. Beside, there were the geometric, cord-marked, brush, impressed patterns were also decrated on the other ones.
2.2. Jewelry: is one of important characteristics of Giong Lon site with 575 objects, include: nephrit stone bracelet, golden earring, glass and agat, pottery bead,… in which the glass bead is in the majority with diametre about 2cm, red.
2.3. Tool, weapon: 7 iron tools and weapons include: 3 chisels, 3 small knive, 1 spearhead.
2.4. Apart from above artifacts, excavators also found some special artifacts as: 1 golden mask, 1 golden miniature linga (linga means the male sexual organ or penis which is symbol of Siva God in Hinduism), 2 golden sheets, 1 bronze small bell.
1. Site: This is a burial site with normal scale located in the Southern of sandbank with square 1,000m2, it includes the burial cooking pots were secondary bury or used to bried children and the directly underground burial graves used to buried death one time.
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2. Artifact: In general, Giong Lon pottery was developed on the tradition of pottery of Giong Ca Vo site (Ho Chi Minh city) even Dong Nai Culture (Mekong River delta in Southern). There was appearance of Oc Eo pottery with characteristics as: small neck and rim, black core-wall, white outface.
Giong Lon jewelry are abudant materials: glass, gold, pricious stone, pottery. Through the first researchs, excavateors defined these jewelries were possible producted in the same site. Through the diffirent funerary amount in each graves, especially, pricious and special funeraries were only buried some graves showed diffirence of social class at that time, especially in the economy.
3. Culture and date: Through total research of site, artifact, excavators concluded the burial graves date circa 2,000 years before present and Giong Lon site belong to Oc Eo culture (1st - 7th century).