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Bảo tàng lịch sử Quốc gia

Vietnam National Museum of History

10/01/2019 15:45 3311
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We’ll follow the becoming of "Đường Kách Mệnh" for understanding the fate and vitality of the book.

 We’ll follow the becoming of "Đường Kách Mệnh" for understanding the fate and vitality of the book.

The newly bublished "Đường Kách Mệnh" books were delivered to Hanoi through Cong Chap border gate – Lang Son province by Nguyen Cong Thu and through the water way Guangzhou – Hai Phong by Nguyen Luong Bang – a secret messinger in the ship of Song Po to Hai Phong and Hai Duong. There was an interesting case that in the only exemplar of the book owned by Vietnam national museum of history there is a paper sheet with an inscription in Nom characters (the old Vietnamease characters based on Chinese characters) describing the finding of the book, the content of the sheet as the following:

“My name is Nguyen Van Ton – deputy head of Ha Truong commune, I would like to submit to you – the head of Thanh Ha district this book with this report. The 5th Bao Dai year, second month, 29” – sealed by Thanh Ha district’s seal and signed by Nguyen Van Ton.

The report by the deputy head of Ha Truong commune had confirmed the significant fact that he had found the forbidden book on the second month, 29 of the 5th Bao Dai year (March, 28 1930) after 3 years from the date of isue and submitted it with the report to the higher authority of Thanh Ha district. The fact was comfirmed by Thanh Ha district’s seal.

As we know, Thanh Ha district , Hai Duonh province is the homeland of Nguyen Luong Bang, the jorney of the book was the following: Nguyen Luong Bang had transported the books in the ships running along the route Guangzhou – Hai Phong and stored in the house # 157C, Le Loi street (formerly Bengic street) which was a contact point set up by Ly Hong Nhat upon the Nguyen Ai Quoc’s asignment. Ly Hong Nhat then handed over the funtioning of this point to Le Van Hien. The books was delivered everywhere from here and one of these books had appeared in Ha Truong commune as known before. 

In the memoirs of NguyenVan Hoan – the elder revolutionary(7) was described the journey of other exepliars of the book. He said Nguyen Luong Bang had directly handed over these books to him in the house # 191, Hang Cap street, Nam Dinh city that they were delivered from here to anywhere in Nam Dinh. Thai Binh, Ninh Binh, Ha Nam provinces afterwards.

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Nguyen  Ai Quoc in 1930.

Another fate awaited these books in Hanoi. Other revolutionary literatures as Thanh Niên (Youth), Công Nông (Workers and Peasants), Lính Kách Mệnh (Revolutionary Soldier), Đường Kách Mệnh (Revolutionary way) had been sending to Hanoi in very small quantity not enough for the needs of revolution. Therefore in Hanoi revolutionaries took the initiative to reprint these documents that the new occurrence so called “extension of replication” had taken places.

At that time Nguyen Danh Doi – then secretary of the Hanoi Communist party’s committee asigned Nguyen Duc Canh a person in charge for replication printing of such literatures the office of which was located in the house #92, Cho Duoi street for mass distribution among people, Here is a quote from the memoirs of a person directly involved in such works:

“Because I was a student and had a good handwriting, I was odered to rewrite and reprint the book “Đường Kách Mệnh” the first revolutionary book in Vietnam written by uncle Ho and published by Thanh Nien newspaper, the first revolutionary newspaper in Vietnamese founded by uncle Ho” (8)

In 1927 “Đường Kách Mệnh” reached Saigon by sea way and were distributed from here to the provinces of Southern region. Since that time the revolutionary youth committee of Vietnam has opened the courses of political training and in other provices the short training courses were opened for newly recruited revolutionaries. The used tutorials were mainly based on “Đường Kách Mệnh” book(9)

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The Book “Đường Kách Mệnh” by Nguyen Ai Quoc issued in Guangzhou (China) in 1927.

The French colonialists prohibited all literary materials that could potentially damage their colonial political system. Revolutionary literature from abroad and especially related to Nguyen Ai Quoc were considered banned. Anyone who has retained, used and distributed this literature could have been convicted through a court in prison.

During his activiies in France, in an article in the L’Humanité newspaper  Nguyen Ai Quoc had acused such organs as Indochina post and Indochina secret police in arrest of the parcels sent by the editorial office of Le paria newspaper. He called them “injustice, abuse of power, scandal, shame” (10). The literatures as Le paria, Youth, Workers and Peasant newspapers  and specially  Đường Kách Mệnh book were forbidden by the French colonizers and their henchmen, so for the existance they needed to be camouflaged or by other words they shoud exist under extrinsical forms. In An Giang province the Đường Kách Mệnh was camouflaged under the Buddha's teachings (Dao Nam Kinh) in the title sheet. 

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Conference on the establishment of the Communist Party of Vietnam on February 3, 1930 (picture photo)

The book of Đường Kách Mệnh by Nguyen Ai Quoc was first published in Guangzhou, China and began to spread over the whole Vietnam by diferent means: some exempliars were printed in Guangzhou, some were reprinted in Vietnam and some even were spreaded as Buddha's teachings. It deservedly was the reference book for the Vietnamese revolutionaries of the first generation. It namely pointed the way for the revolutionaries of Vietnam to victory on August 1945 establishing the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

Thin book, but had in mind much thicker.

Associated professor: Phạm Xanh

Translator: Nguyen Thai Hung