The Phung Nguyen culture was named after the first archaeological site discovered in 1959 in Kinh Ke commune, Lam Thao district, Phu Tho province. This is the first culture of the Bronze Age in Vietnam. Special characteristics of Phung Nguyen culture include stone artefacts, which are diverse in types, such as tools, arms and jewelry. The two latter show that metallurgical techniques had reached a high peak. Especially popular were jewelries made of different stones, including nephrite and jade. Pottery was made using a wheel and was decorated with engraving, incised designs with a letter “S” pattern and soft bands of symmetrical triangles. Lumps of brass and patina were also found at some archaeological sites.
The Dong Dau culture was named after the first archaeological site discovered in 1962 in Dong Dau village, Yen Lac town, Yen Lac district, Vinh Phuc province. This culture was the continuation and development of the previous Phung Nguyen culture. There are a small number of stone tools that were not carefully made. Bone artefacts were found in many archaeological sites. Potteries were diverse in type and decorative motifs: waves, tablatures, concentric circles, etc. Bronze tools, such as arrows, lance were discovered in many sites, showing the preference of the Dong Dau people for bronze tools, which allowed them to be more productive.
The Go Mun culture was named after the first archaeological site discovered in 1961 in Tu Xa commune, Phong Chau district, Phu Tho province. This culture was the continuation and development of the previous Dong Dau culture. Stone tool production decreased in quantity and quality, while the production of bronze tools increased. These bronze tools included hooks, arrows and lances, showing that bronze tools gradually became more necessary and important for working. Ceramic products developed with diverse printed and embossed patterns. With the development of bronze tools, Go Mun people gradually established some control over natural forces and mastered the Red River Delta, laying the foundation for the following glorious Dong Son culture to develop.